Education

WHEN ITS TIME TO SAY, GOODBYE.

A hard to read article, but an important article to read. Please don’t leave your animals alone in the final minutes of their life. They have always been there for you, so please be there for them in this difficult time. It’s incredibly important. We know how incredibly hard it is to say goodbye, but It’s bigger than you and I, it’s about them at this time and they need you there. ♥️

Heartbroken vet reveals: What pets do minutes before being put to sleep


POISONOUS FOODS FOR DOGS

We love our dogs very much. We sometimes have a hard time saying “no” to their sweet faces and heart melting eyes. People food isn’t always good for your canine companion, no matter how much he might beg for it. It’s usually best to refrain from sharing your meals and beverages – and recreational habits – with your dog, especially when it comes to certain foods. Here is a list of the most toxic or deadly foods for you dog to ingest.

1. Chocolate

Chocolate contains a stimulant called theobromine — a bit like caffeine — that’s poisonous to dogs. The amount of theobromine depends on the type of chocolate. Theobromine mainly affects the guts, heart, central nervous system, and kidneys and signs of theobromine poisoning will occur between four and 24 hours after your dog has eaten chocolate. You may see vomiting, diarrhoea, restlessness, hyperactivity and seizures. Read our in-depth guide on the dangers of chocolate to dogs.

A list from most dangerous to least dangerous chocolate for dogs to ingest.s

Cocoa powder
Unsweetened baker’s chocolate
Semisweet chocolate
Dark chocolate
Milk chocolate
White chocolate

2. Caffeine

Like chocolate, caffeine is a stimulant. Dogs are more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than people. A couple of laps of tea or coffee are unlikely to do any harm, but if your dog swallows a handful of coffee beans or tea bags they could be in danger. Signs and treatment of caffeine poisoning are similar to chocolate toxicity.

3. Onions, garlic, and chives

Eating these vegetables and herbs can cause stomach and gut irritation and potentially lead to red blood cell damage and anaemia.

Onions No matter what form they’re in (dry, raw, cooked, powder, within other foods) are particularly toxic and signs of poisoning often only occur a few days after your dog has eaten the vegetable. All forms of onion can be a problem including dehydrated onions, raw onions, cooked onions and table scraps containing cooked onions or garlic. Left-over pizza, Chinese dishes and commercial baby food containing onion, sometimes fed as a supplement to young pets, can cause illness. Many prepared foods (including takeaways), sauces and gravies contain onion or garlic powder. They contain disulfides and sulfoxides (thiosulphate), both of which can cause anemia and damage red blood cells

4. Alcohol

Alcohol is significantly more toxic to dogs than to humans. When consumed, even small quantities of alcoholic beverages and food products may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, blood changes, coma and even death. So, remember to keep alcohol well out of your dog’s reach.
5. Mouldy foods

Mouldy food, including bread, nuts and dairy products, contain lots of toxins that could make your dog very ill. Make sure you dispose of leftovers carefully and be careful to keep your food waste bin well out of your dog’s reach.

6. Grapes & raisins

While the toxic substance in grapes and raisins is unknown, it can cause kidney failure in sensitive individuals. Dogs that already have underlying health problems are at greatest risk and just one raisin can be severely toxic. Experts agree that there is no “safe” dose of grapes and raisins.

Our emergency vets have drawn up an advice guide on what to do if a dog eats grapes or raisins — or foods including them such as hot cross buns, mince pies and fruit loaf.

7. Macadamia nuts

Within 12 hours of ingestion, macadamia nuts can cause dogs to experience weakness, depression, tremors, vomiting and increased body temperature. These symptoms tend to last for approximately 12 to 48 hours. If you suspect your dog has consumed macadamia nuts note the possible quantity consumed and contact your vet.

Yeast
Yeast dough can cause gas to accumulate in your dog’s digestive system as a result of the dough rising. Not only can this be painful but it may also cause the stomach or intestines to become blocked. So while small bits of bread can be given as a treat — due to the fact that risks are diminished once the yeast has fully risen — never give your dog yeast dough. Just like yeast rises in bread, it will also expand and rise within your pup’s tummy. Make sure they don’t get any. While mild cases will cause gas, lots of farting and discomfort — too much of it could rupture their stomach and intestines. Yeast dough is also dangerous because as it ferments and rises it makes alcohol which can lead to alcohol poisoning.

9.Cooked or small bones.

While feeding your dog bones may seem like a good idea, it’s important to remember that dogs may choke on them, develop intestinal obstructions after swallowing pieces of bone, damage their teeth chewing them, or sustain internal injury as bone splinters can puncture your dog’s digestive tract.

If you do choose to give your dog a bone be sure to keep an eye on him while he tucks in and avoid giving cooked bones, which splinter more easily, or bones that are small enough to get stuck in their intestines. Eating large quantities of bone can often cause constipation, so try to monitor the amount your dog manages to consume.

10. Corn on the cob

Corn on the cob may seem like a healthy table scrap to give your dog, but unlike most vegetables, it does not digest well in a dog’s stomach. If your dog swallows large chunks of the cob, or even whole, it can cause an intestinal blockage due to its size and shape. Signs to look out for are vomiting, loss of appetite or reduced appetite, absence of faeces or diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort.

11. Xylitol

Xylitol is used as a sweetener in many products, including gum, candy, baked goods and toothpaste. It can cause insulin release in most species, which can lead to liver failure. The increase in insulin leads to hypoglycemia (lowered sugar levels). Initial signs of toxicosis include vomiting, lethargy and loss of coordination. Signs can progress to seizures. Elevated liver enzymes and liver failure can be seen within a few days.

12. Salt and Salty Snack Foods

Salty Snacks.Large amounts of salt can produce excessive thirst and urination, or even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Signs that your pet may have eaten too many salty foods include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body temperature, seizures and even death. As such, we encourage you to avoid feeding salt-heavy snacks like potato chips, pretzels, and salted popcorn to your pets.

13. Citrus

The stems, leaves, peels, fruit and seeds of citrus plants contain varying amounts of citric acid, essential oils that can cause irritation and possibly even central nervous system depression if ingested in significant amounts. Small doses, such as eating the fruit, are not likely to present problems beyond minor stomach upset.

14. Avocado

Avocados contain persin, which can cause diarrhea, vomiting and heart congestion. The most dangerous part of an avocado is the pit because it is a choking hazard and it is full of persin. If you think your dog has ingested an avocado pit, call your vet asap. If your dog ate a small piece of avocado, it will probably be okay, but make sure you monitor your dog and call your vet for further care.

15. Candy, Chewing Gum, Toothpaste & Mouthwash

Not only does candy contain sugar, but it often contains xylitol, which can lead to vomiting, loss of coordination, seizures and liver failure.

16. Apple Seeds

The casing of apple seeds are toxic to a dog as they contain a natural chemical (amygdlin) that releases cyanide when digested. This is really only an issue if a large amount was eaten and the seed were chewed up by the dog, causing it to enter its bloodstream. To play it safe, be sure to core and seed apples before you feed them to your dog.

17. Persimmon, Peach & Plum Pits

Pits/seeds from these fruits can cause intestinal issues in dogs. Additionally, peach and plum pits have cyanide, which is poisonous to dogs (and people!)

18. Human Vitamins

It isn’t recommended to give your dog one of your vitamins or supplements. Human vitamins often contain 100% of the recommended daily amount of various minerals. This could cause an overdose of a mineral for your dog.

The most dangerous vitamin is prenatal vitamins, which have a higher dose of iron and can cause iron toxicity in pets. If your dog ingests a bunch of prenatal vitamins (or other vitamins with a high dosage of iron) you should call your vet immediately.

19. Marijuana

Depending how much your dog was exposed to can affect the level of poison. There isn’t much information out about dogs and marijuana but from what we can find, these are the common symptoms: slow response times, dribbling urine, heart rate change, neurological stimulation, hyperactivity, coma and even death.

19. Rhubarb & Tomato Leaves

These contain oxalates, which can cause, drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, tremors and bloody urine.

20. Tobacco

Tobacco contains nicotine, which can be lethal to dogs. Symptoms include vomiting, abnormal heart rate, tremors and weakness. Tobacco poisoning can present itself within 1 hour of ingestion.

21. Fish

The primary fish that you need to be careful about are salmon and trout. Raw salmon can be fatal to dogs if the fish is infected with a certain parasite.

22. Hops

This beer ingredient can be bad for your dog. The consumption of hops cause panting, an increased heart rate, fever, seizures, and even death.

23. Mushrooms

The wrong mushroom can be fatal to humans as well as your pet.

24. Starfruit

Soluble oxalate-containing plants contain oxalic acid and oxalate salts, and must be differentiated from insoluble oxalate plants (which are less toxic). Examples of soluble calcium oxalate-containing plants include: star fruit, common or garden rhubarb, shamrock plant, etc. In general, soluble calcium oxalate poisoning is more commonly associated with large animals (from livestock chronically grazing). However, when ingested in large enough quantities in small animals, it can result in poisoning in dogs, cats, and even humans.

Soluble calcium oxalates are present in varying degrees in all parts of the plant. For example, rhubarb stems are edible, but the leaves are not. When soluble oxalate salts are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, they bind with body’s calcium, resulting in a sudden drop in calcium. Rarely, acute renal failure can be seen from ingestion of plants or fruit containing these soluble oxalate crystals. Clinical signs of this type of poisoning include drooling, inappetance, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, tremors, bloody urine, and changes in thirst and urination.

Common signs to watch for:

Drooling
Inappetance
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Lethargy
Weakness
Tremors
Bloody urine
Changes in thirst and urination


DOGS LOOSE IN THE BACK OF TRUCKS

​BCSPCA INFO

I saw a dog in the back of a pick-up truck, what do I do?

Section 72 of the BC Motor Vehicle Act and Section 9.3 of the PCA Act prohibit the transport of an unsecured pet in the back of a pick-up truck.
It is against the law and dangerous for a pet.

If you see a dog that is unattached in the back of a pick-up truck,
call 911 or non emergency line. Record the information about the
vehicle so that you have it on hand for your call:

-Licence plate number
-Make and model of vehicle
-Description of dog

What is the best way to secure a pet in a vehicle?
Unrestrained pets are a major distraction to drivers and can cause
vehicle collisions. In a crash, pets become flying objects and
can cause serious injury to themselves and others.

Put the dog inside the vehicle with you and use a secured crate
or a dog seatbelt to restrain your pet.If you must transport your
pet in the back of a truck, the safest method is in a secured crate
in the centre of your truck box.

​I saw a dog in the back of a pick-up truck, what do I do?

RainCoast –

We still tragically see this everyday. We really need to come together and educate one another to help put an end to dogs being left loose in the back of trucks. This is illegal under the PCA act (Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) and the Motor Vehicle Act. It’s a very serious topic and I think some people that still do this to their dogs may not realize the true dangers they are placing their dog in, themselves in, and the others around them in. Or perhaps they just don’t care?

Can you forgive and live with yourself if your dog flies out of your truck and gets badly injured or dies because of your poor choices? Can you live with and forgive yourself if you badly injure or kill others because your dog flew out of the truck and caused a major accident? Your whole life ruined along with others in a blink of an eye because you were too ignorant or stubborn to think of your dog’s and others safety. Let’s change this.

I hear the saying “my dog loves it, he’s been doing it since a pup”. Well, since your dog can’t speak your language and the dog has been forced to be loose back there, then of course your dog may seem used to the truck bed, they were forced to be. They didn’t get a choice.

There are lots of discussions on who you call when this happens… The first thing to to do is; get the make, model and license plate of the vehicle, along with the the time of day and area. A picture if it’s safe to take. Report it to 911 or the non emergency police line, along with the SPCA, immediately. At this point, we also mention maybe publicly posting as well because sometimes that can help create instant awareness and change. It’s not an approach we always recommend, but the way this keeps happening daily, it may be one of the most effective deterrents to save animals and peoples lives.


DOGGIE DO’S AND DON’TS FOR KIDS

When teaching your kids how to properly act around dogs, please consider these tips to help educate your children for their own safety and the dogs.

~ Always ask an adult permission before you pet a dog.

~ Wait for a dog to come to you. Pet the dog on the chest or back – not the head or tail. Don’t go behind the dog. If the dog does not come up to you on its own, the dog may not want you to pet it.

~ If you don’t know the dog well, don’t hug or kiss the dog. It can be a very invasive and personal thing for a dog to allow a new person to hug or kiss it. Save your hugs and kisses for your human friends and family.

~ Do not tease a dog. Do not run up to one and then run away or try to steal a toy. The dog may not think you’re playing.

~ “Service Dogs” shouldn’t be engaged with or distracted. If you see a service dog with someone in a store, restaurant or in a public place, it is probably doing an important job for its handler and shouldn’t be touched.

~ Always give dogs space. You don’t want a stranger to or even sometimes a friend to come up and touch you without permission. A dog is the same way.

~ Do not go up to a dog that is eating or sleeping.

~ Do not put your hands on a fence where there is a dog or touch a dog’s food bowl while eating, and do not touch a dogs toys or bones while in their mouth or area.

~ Do not allow your child or children to pull on a dogs ears, tail or poke them in the eyes. Do not allow them to jump on the dogs body in any way.

~ Do not allow your child or children to run and scream, or play with toys that make loud noises around a new dogs space.

~ Be careful around a mother dog and her puppies. These are her babies and she most likely doesn’t want strangers to touch them. It can also be unsafe for someone with dirty hands to touch a newborn puppy.

~ Remember that a dog that is older, sick or injured may not be in a good mood and will possibly bite if bothered.

~ If a dog comes close to you without a leash, don’t run away or make loud noises. Stand tall like a tree and don’t move, even if you want to run away. Cross your arms over your chest and don’t stare at the dogs eyes and stay quiet until the dog leaves or an adult is present.

~ If you think a dog may bite you, stay still and maybe try to gently toss a toy or another object away from you. If the dog goes for that object, then slowly turn and walk away from the dog.

~ When meeting a new dog try to stay quiet, have your hand in a fist for the dog to smell, not an open hand, because if a dog bites then your fingers could get badly injured, where as your fist is a lot less likely to get really hurt.

~ A reminder for parents that it is up to a parent to properly teach a child how to respectfully act around a dog, it is not up to the dog to know how to act around a child. Most children and dog related incidents are the parents fault from improper education or supervision. Some dogs are more suited for children, but in the end it is up to the parent to educate their child or children properly.

~ Parents, never leave your child or children unsupervised around a new dog or any dog that is eating, has a bone or toy, is sick, injured or sleeping.

We just want to help educate people so that we can have safer environments for children and dogs to live in together in peace and harmony. Thank you!


DOGS PAWS ON HOT SURFACES

Hot weather can cause roads to melt and dogs to burn their paws on asphalt,
tarmac and artificial grass.

Dogs’ paws can be just as sensitive as humans’ feet. That means they’re
equally as likely to get burnt walking on a hot surface as their owner would be

For many, warm, sunny weather provides a great incentive to get outdoors.
But it also brings its problems — such as roads melting and dogs getting
their paws burnt on scorching hot pavements. Many vets can tell you they
have treated dogs who have been the victim of severe burns to their paws.
However, a large number of these cases could have been avoided if owners
had followed some simple safety advice.

Advice is for owners to place the back of their hand on the surface for
seven seconds. If you struggle to hold it down, it’s too hot to walk a dog.
The same goes for your bare feet.

Keep to natural grass. Walk early in the morning or late in the evening
when surfaces are cooler. Invest in a non disposable pair of booties to help
avoid burning paws. Follow the seven-second rule and check the surface for
heat before you leave the house.

Dogs can suffer burns to their paws on days most people wouldn’t consider
searingly hot. If the outside temperature is 25C (77F), there’s little wind
and humidity is low, asphalt and tarmac can reach a staggering 52C (125F).
This can rise to 62C (143F) when the mercury hits 31C (87F).
It’s worth bearing in mind that an egg can fry in five minutes at 55C (131F)
while skin destruction can occur in just one minute at 52C (125F).
The reason pavements get so hot is they soak up heat all day and then retain that heat.

Artificial grass came out hottest out of all surfaces, followed by the material
that’s used to make running tracks and then asphalt.

Asphalt is the most widely used material in roads and pavements, while artificial
grass is increasingly being used to replace natural grass in parks and gardens.
All three surfaces measured upwards of 50C (122F) at 2pm on both days.
This temperature could severely burn a dog’s paws within a matter of minutes.
Brick and concrete came next in the surface temperature league table followed
by natural grass. Sand can get exceedingly hot too. The fact natural grass was
the coolest of the six surfaces that owners should choose to walk their dogs
on hot summer’s days. Although our strong advice is to exercise dogs before 10am
and after 8pm in the summer when temperatures are no longer as high.

Don’t use disposable dog shoes. They are made of rubber or silicone and fit
tightly so there is no room for your dog’s feet to breathe. 
Additionally, they do not provide any barrier to heat or cold. The temperature
beneath them goes right through to your dog’s feet. Don’t use any product that
sticks to your dog’s foot as you don’t want anything to rip the skin on their
foot pads.

If you’re animals paws are damaged due to a hot surface you can:
Run the paws under cool water or use a cold compress. … Do not let your dog
lick or chew the paw pads. Take your dog to the vet right away. Burns can become
infected, so your vet may give you some antibiotics, as well as medication for
the burn.

https://www.vets-now.com/2017/06/never-walk-dogs-hot-asphalt-tarmac-pavements-artificial-grass/


OPIOD OVERDOSES IN DOGS / NARCAN TREATMENT

Opioid Overdose in Dogs – By RainCoast – Jodie Evans

Given the current opioid crisis, it is important to be aware of the impact
that this may have on our pets. Some examples of opioids include: Methadone,
Morphine, Fentanyl, Heroin, Dilaudid and Vicodin. As a long-time street nurse
in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, I have firsthand experience
intervening in dog overdoses. An opioid overdose in a dog can be caused
by the ingestion of a pure substance but can also occur from something as
small as licking drug paraphernalia. We encourage you to keep an eye out
when you are walking your dog for potentially harmfulsubstances.

Some things you may want to look out for on a walk or in the park include:
❖ Small baggies containing pills or powdered substances
❖ Syringes
❖ Cookers (small round trays used for cooking drugs)
❖ Small squares of a paper-like substance

When your pet accidentally ingests opioids, it can result in rapid
and severe poisoning, with symptoms often beginning with 15 minutes
of ingestion. It is important to be able to recognize the signs
which may include:

❖ Pinned pupils
❖ Decreased level of consciousness
❖ Laboured breathing
❖ Tongue hanging out
❖ Vomiting
❖ Unsteady gait “drunk walking”
❖ Decreased heart rate

If you suspect your dog is having an overdose, you should seek
medical attention immediately. If you have access to Naloxone (Narcan),
an opioid antagonist, this should be administered immediately to help
reverse the effects of the opioid.

How to administer Naloxone (Narcan) to a dog:

⮚ For reference: take-home Narcan kits contain 3 x 0.4mg/ml ampoules of Narcan
⮚ Identify an injection area in the dog’s outer, rear thigh or behind the shoulder blades
⮚ Administer Narcan at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg. For example, a 22kg dog (50 lbs) would
require a dose of 0.9mg (approximately 2 ampoules)
⮚ Administer Narcan every 2-5 minutes until the dog begins to breathe at a normal rate
again

It is important to remember that Narcan lasts for a much shorter length
of time than opioids, meaning that it can wear off and your dog
can overdose again, even if it does not ingest another harmful substance.
For this reason, you should always seek medical attention for your dog
after administering Narcan, and monitor them for several hours after
to ensure they make a full recovery.

References:

How to give Narcan® to a K9


https://vetmed.illinois.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/opioid-emergency-
protocol.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3mZfiyPXk6UErd3IYZC8TptNXOAFiYDRH3R9ZfdonI2zhXJ6o8QK8zPnA